In 1998, researchers including Mark Kubinec of UC Berkeley performed one of the first simple quantum computations using individual molecules. They used pulses of radio waves to flip the spins of two nuclei in a molecule, with each spin’s “up” or “down” orientation storing information in the way that a “0” or “1” state stores information in a classical data bit. In those early days of quantum computers, the combined orientation of the two nuclei – that is, the molecule’s quantum state – could only be preserved for brief periods in specially tuned environments. In other words, the system quickly lost its coherence. Control over quantum coherence is the missing step to building scalable quantum computers.
Stacking extremely thin films of material on top of each other can create new materials with exciting new properties. But the most successful processes for building those stacks can be tedious and imperfect, and not well suited for large-scale production. Now a team led by Stanford Professor Hemamala Karunadasa has created a much simpler and faster way to do it. They grew 2D layers of one of the most sought-after materials, known as perovskites, interleaved with thin layers of other materials in large crystals that assemble themselves.
Smartphones, laptops, and lighting applications rely on light-emitting diodes (LEDs) to shine bright. But the brighter these LED technologies shine, the more inefficient they become, releasing more energy as heat instead of light. Now, as reported in the journal Science, a team led by researchers at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) and UC Berkeley has demonstrated an approach for achieving near 100% light-emission efficiency at all brightness levels.
Thanks to AI, we just got stunningly powerful tools to decode life. In two back-to-back papers last week, scientists at DeepMind and the University of Washington described deep learning-based methods to solve protein folding—the last step of executing the programming in our DNA, and a “once in a generation advance.”
Since 2000 Vacuum Technology & Coating Magazine has been the industry's leading source for the latest articles, news, and product and service information. Below we describe some of the terms that you will find in a typical issue of VT&C.
Vacuum Coating (Vacuum Deposition and Thin Film Deposition) is the process of depositing a film or other material atom by atom or molecule by molecule onto a surface in a low pressure environment or vacuum.
Physical Vapor Deposition or PVD refers to vacuum deposition methods which involve the material (which is being deposited) going from a condensed phase to a vapor phase and then to a thin film condensed phase. Sputtering and evaporation are common PVD processes.
Sputtering refers to a type of process used to deposit thin films and employs a plasma to bombard and eject atoms from a target source.
Evaporation refers to the heated source material being evaporated in a vacuum. Vacuum allows vapor particles to travel directly to the target object, where they condense back to a solid state. (called a Deposition Source) refers to a type of process used to deposit thin films and employs a plasma to bombard and eject atoms from the target source (called a Deposition Source).
Vacuum Hardware refers to the types of hardware and components that are used in the vacuum process. There are many types of hardware used in this process, some examples are flanges, fittings, seals, valves, and chambers.
Thin Film Metrology involves determining the optimal thickness, composition and/or condition of a coating through various techniques and mathematical calculations.
Gas Analytical Systems are used in the analysis of residual gases within a low pressure environment or vacuum.
Vacuum Pumps are devices that remove gas atoms and molecules for the purpose of leaving behind a partial vacuum. Some examples of types of vacuum pumps are rotary vane pumps, diaphragm pumps, and scroll pumps.
Every issue of VT&C includes a product showcase focused on a specific topic relevant to Vacuum Processing, please see our editorial calendar which lists the topic for each issue.